Everything You Need to Know About Audio Output Transformers

Audio transformers, as their name suggests, are employed for use among various audio equipment with a working frequency range being between 10 and 20,000 Hz. Meanwhile, the impedance is often utilized to transform the voltage or change the load. This type of transformer is generally used in radios, televisions, voltage amplifiers, and other related applications.

The core of an audio transformer is superimposed by a high magnetic material with tightly coupled primary and secondary windings. In this configuration, the flux across the original winding has a phase chain with the secondary winding, and the coupling coefficient is close to 1. The lowest frequency of the passband is determined by the inductance of the original winding, whereas the highest frequency is determined by the leakage inductance of the transformer.

It is worth noting that the original winding inductance is large, while the leakage inductance is small, ensuring that the transformer has ample passband. Keep in mind that the saturation of the magnetic circuit and the hysteresis loss of the core can lead to signal distortion. To prevent this, there must be proper load distribution and increased load current. Additionally, the core section should be increased so that an air gap exists to reduce the saturation of the magnetic circuit. This will significantly reduce the distortion of the signal.

The Working Principle of an Audio Output Transformer

While there are a number of audio transformer types available on the market, we will direct our focus on audio output transformers. An audio output transformer is intended to isolate an input circuit from an output circuit while filtering any signal that passes through it. Furthermore, it is designed to function on signals with a frequency spectrum in the audible band.

Essentially, audio output transformers carry out two functions. The first includes matching the output impedance, and the second consists of converting voltage to current. This allows the higher voltage signal to be converted into an electrical signal with lower output current. In terms of matching impedance, one must pay close attention to the front and back impedance to avoid signal distortion caused by the reflection. Moreover, the load impedance must be consistent with the impedance necessitated by the power amplifier stage and match the impedance of the output transformer to maximize the load. 

Design Specifications

When deciding between audio transformer options for your operations, the choice comes down to the core material and its size, frequency response, power levels, and harmonic distortion. Audio output transformers are often preferred over their counterparts because they take advantage of high-permeability cores and the largest number of coil turns to generate high primary inductance. Please take note of the fact that by changing the number of wire turns in each winding, transformers can be designed to have a variety of impedance ratios.


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